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Home Facts SOA Manuals Handling of Sources CHAPTER VI
CHAPTER VI PDF Print E-mail
INTRODUCTION:

The agent must consider the mission Of the employee, his history
and the operational situation to determine what type of training he
must receive. For security purposes, the employee must be taught
only those techniques that he needs to know.

DEVELOPMENT:

A. The employees training consists of three general phases:

1. The essential training which includes security measures, how
to pass and receive information and how to use a fictitious
identity.

2. Genaral or basic training which includes map reading, compass
use, observation and description, preparing sketches and submitting
reports.

3. The training for a specific mission which includes skills
that an employee must use to carry out specific tasks.

Training is an important means by which the agent can develop
efficient employees and improve the operational situation of the
employee in general.

B. PURPOSE OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING:

1. The purpose of training is to provide the employee the
general knowledge and special skills that he needs to carry out
effective and without risk the tasks assigned to him. The
employee's training reaches its maximum value when this individual
learns and accepts the basic principles of the intelligence
activity.

2. Now that the objective is known', we will analyze the
training possibilities. Training must teach the employee the
following:

a. Understanding of the techniques that guarantee the
security of the organization, its members and its activities.

b. The required aptitudes and skills necessary for the
efficient fulfillment of its intelligence tasks.

C. Understanding of his identity and necessary techniques for
all out survival.

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3. Training is a continuous process. This never ends. It
begins with the first contact between the employee and the CI agent
and continues until the termination of the employees services.
There are three factors that govern the training program:

The nature of the mission.

The history of the employee

The operational situation.

4. The mission determines but does not limit the type of
training that the employee must receive. If the employee's
responsibilities increase, the need of training him in special
techniques increases proportionately. The training reaches its
maximum value when all the basis principles of the intelligence
activities have been explained, understood and accepted by the
employee. once this has been achieved, the employee could continue
developing and improving through experience.

5. The experience the employee may have had will be a
determining factor in his ability to learn and acquire now skills.
His ethnic history could influence in his attitude and degree of
training he has will influence his ability to acquire new skills.
The experience that be may have acquired in military service thanks
to observation and practice should facilitate his training. The
specialty which he has professionally or as an amateur acquired
will also be important in the training of an employee.

6. The CI agent must plan the training which he is going to give
the employee in accordance with the operational environment. The
factors that must be considered here are:

The availability of the employee to be trained.

The attitude of the persons who live in the area where the
employee is receiving training.

The number of guerrilla elements that operate in the area
where the training is carried out.

C. SECURITY IN TRAINING:

1. Due to importance of training of the employee and due to the
fact that this training must be carried out discreetly, security is
a very important factor. The same as any other intelligence
activity, training must be protected through an appropriate
identity. At times, it will be necessary to use more than one
identity to be able to carry out the training in the most rigorous
secrecy conditions. We see that identities or activities will be
necessary to protect during the training phase.

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a. In order to maintain the security of the operation, it will
be necessary to create individual fictitious identities for the
training place or places, the (presumed) employee, CI agent In
charge of training and encounters between him and his employee. It
is possible that other general security factors could emerge that
will have to be considered. However, the most important factor is
the fact that the training. particularly special training, will
reveal to the employee the true aims of the intelligence
organization. It is necessary that every CI agent understands
this, therefore, they will have to take the necessary measures to
assure that the intelligence organization and the CI agent
carefully compare the security with the efficiency and can thus
decide up to what degree will risk this revelation to organization
and its members, given the case that the employee might compromise
or desert to the guerrilla organization.

b. In order to be able to guarantee the security of the
operation, all members of the intelligence organization, including
the employees, must understand all the principles and methods which
they must follow in order to achieve personal security of all and
each one of the members of the intelligence organization.
Therefore, the employee's training must include all the information
which contributes to this understanding. Below, we list the points
that must be emphasized:
1) The individual Identity and its concealment.

2) Surveillance and counter-surveillance techniques.

3) Places and areas that must be avoided. We must understand
here that these are not the same for all places. However, an
analysis of the operational data available will give us the
necessary information to train the employee. For example, it is
possible that the guerrillas control certain roads. Unless these
are specific targets assigned to employee, he must not frequent
these roads.

4) Persons with whom must avoid contact. here we list the
following persons:

a) Known delinquents.
b) Politicians whose steps may be watched by the
government or the guerrillas.
c) Persons who are under police surveillance.
d) Any person that could draw the attention of the
guerrillas to the employee.

5) Employee's personal conduct.
Factors that could attract public attention to an
employee and compromise him:

a) An employee who frequents night clubs, bars, etc., and
spends considerable sums of money in these places.


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b) An employee who smokes foreign cigarettes and has
luxury articles that link him with other privileges which most of
his neighbors do not enjoy, risks to be discovered

c) An employee who has amorous relations with a jealous
woman could find himself compromised because of that woman.

d) An employee who usually visits places of doubtful
reputation could expose himself or his organization. These places
are frequently raided by the police and this employee could easily
be arrested with the rest of those in the audience.

e) Frequenting gambling houses could also place in danger
the personal safety of the employee

f) Employees must avoid situation that could result in
legal suits against them.

It is important that the employee abstain from taking part in
any activity which brings hi to the attention of the guerrillas in
an insurrection environment, such as sympathy demonstrations in
favor of the government.

6) Employee discipline: Discipline is of vital importance
for the security of the employee as well as of the organization.
An employee who visits a parent or a friend who resides in a
certain area when he has been warned not to do it, not only
compromises himself but he also exposes his organization. It is
necessary to emphasize the importance that discipline has in
intelligence activities during the employee's training. Discipline
is a vital attribute that the employee must have.

D. TRAINING SITUATION:

In the first place we are going to analyze the obligatory
training methods. These include the basic elements that are found
in a civilian university, in an Army services school or in the
training of any employee. These basic elements are the following:

- Training preparation.
- Presentation.
- Application.
- Examination or evaluation
- Critical review.

1. PREPARATION:

a. In our situation, the student is the employee and you,
the CI agent, is the instructor. The instructor's preparation is
of high importance since it is necessary that he knows well the
material before he is able to teach the student or employee. And
so our proposal is to begin your preparation; you will acquire more

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experience on the subject through practice and continuing to study
this same subject, once a mission has been assigned to him, it will
help him to acquire more rience.

2. PRESENTATION:

a. The presentation phase is self-explanatory.

Here begins the training itself. You begin by telling the
employee exactly what you want him to learn, explained to him up to
a certain degree because you want him to learn and, possibly,
indicate to him the degree of skill that you expect him to acquire.
Then the subject is presented to your employee, that is, it has to
do with the reading of a letter, a reconnaissance, an observation,
etc. er on we shall explain various ways of doing this.

3. APPLICATION:

If possible, give your employee some problems, exercises, etc.,
in order to practice what he has learned. this applies particularly
to subjects like observation, reading of letters, reconnaissance,
operation of equipment, etc.

4. EXAMINATION OR EVALUATION:

Periodically during training, it is necessary to evaluate how
the employee responds to instructions that he has received, his
ability to remember and to understand, and the CI agent's ability
to teach. This evaluation could be carried out by assigning test
missions under supervision, written examinations and questions.
Audio-visual techniques that have had success include, among other
things, the use of models, silhouettes, drawings, tape recorders
and photograms. That is sufficient to say that the weaknesses
which the employee may have shown must be corrected. Must not
accept as fact that something which is simple and clear to you will
also be clear to the employee. The mission will be the decisive
factor. If the employee returns to the mission with the
information that he was sent out to look for, and if he followed
all the orders, his training up to that point has been successful.
If he does not return, it is possible that the CI agent had failed
in his training or that he may have been mistaken in a principle on
evaluating the capacity of the employee.

5. CRITICAL REVIEW:

When an employee returns from a test mission, he will be
subjected to a post-orientation in relation with his mission. This
post-orientation will point out some of the errors that could have
been committed by the employee, or points that require additional
explanation. This is the moment of correcting these errors,
teaching new techniques to the employee and assuring him that he is
going to learn well all that you have taught him. with this

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completed, you could continue the teaching with more advanced
material.

E. TRAINING METHODS:

1. The training methods include:

a. Practice exercise.

b. Demonstration.
c. Questions and answers.

d. Orientation.

2. PRACTICE EXERCISE:

The best way to evaluate the skills of the employee is through
practice. This way, the degree of skills that the employee has
acquired could be determined, and give him additional training if
necessary. In this training method the employee must work
independently to the extend possible. Patience must be shown with
the employee when answering his questions, correct his errors and
repeat the training. It is better to repeat the training as a way
of developing greater confidence in the employee.

3. DEMONSTRATION:

Demonstration does not differ greatly from other training
methods. This is not but an explanation, through examples, or a
practical way of showing how something functions or it is used.
This system is generally used together with orientation, frequently
used to questions, and must be complemented with an application of
practice and tests. It is an important part of the training method
which includes orientation, questions and answers. The employee
must always learn how to carry out a task that requires skill, the
CI agent could use the demonstration method. If it was necessary
to train the employee for a series of tasks, it is more convenient
to use learned theories. Must carry out a final demonstration
which covers a series of complete tasks. A demonstration requires
a careful preparation with an exact description of the procedure.
Must determine that the equipment is needed and to test said
equipment before meeting with the employee to begin training.

The demonstration method comprises in determining the purpose of
the demonstration, studying of the tasks or skills that the
employee must learn, prepares the instruction phases in the
corresponding order, deciding which phases could require more
training and testing the meeting with the employee.

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4. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS METHOD:

a. An effective training method is the meeting, which
consists of a controlled discussion where the system of questions
and answers applies. This method could be used to cover a wide
variety of subjects related to training. This system is of special
value since it gives the employee the opportunity to participate in
the training and at the same time allows the CI agent to correct
immediately any error which the employee could commit.

b. It also gives the opportunity to employee to exercise
the mind and show if he has learned the instruction well. However,
this method is more difficult to control and it is much slower. in
addition, the CI agent must be better prepared to answer the
questions and maintain the training under control. He must
carefully analyze all questions that the employee makes no matter
how insignificant they seem. All questions which the employee
makes are important, consequently, must use them to adapt the
training according to employee needs.

5. ORIENTATION METHOD:

The orientation method allows to cover a large amount of
detailed information is a short time. it allows the CI agent to
review and emphasize previous lessons and to give instructions for
future lessons. On the other hand, the orientation has
disadvantages that we must recognize. During the orientation,
there is the possibility of presenting too much material and to
confuse the employee. It is possible that the CI agent is so
absorbed in the explanation of details explaining something that
the employee perhaps does not understand, is not interested or does
not want to apply the theory that is being taught. However, the
orientation is one of the most important methods that the- agent
uses to give instructions to employee when the time is limited and
justly before sending the employee to carry out a mission.

F. APTITUDES THAT THE INSTRUCTOR MUST MEET:

1. There are certain aptitudes that the CI agent must have to be
a good instructor. These aptitudes include:

a. Knowledge of the subject.

b. Knowledge of teaching techniques.

c. Personality.

d. Leadership qualities

e. Professional attitude.

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2. Discussion of aptitudes:

a. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT:

One of the most important aptitudes that he must have is
knowledge of the subject. That is to say, that the instructor must
know wall his subject in order to be able to teach others.
However, the instructor commits a serious error when he takes for
granted that experience by itself provides enough knowledge to
teach a subject without any additional preparation and a continuous
study of applicable material. The instructor must be absorbed in
his subject in order to be able to teach and, naturally, must be
prepared to answer virtually any question on said subject.

b. TEACHING TECHNIQUES:

Knowledge of teaching techniques. The purpose of this
instruction is to introduce the teaching techniques which
definitively is a prior requirement for a good instructor.

c. PERSONALITY:

The personality of the instructor. You have learned in other
lessons that it is necessary to establish good relations with the
employee and to motivate him to the extend that he complies with
loyalty to the tasks that may be assigned to him. Therefore, it is
essential that the instructor has the type of personality that
allows him to establish good relations with the employee. He must
have confidence in his instructor and in the instructions that he
gives.

4. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES:

The CI agent must have leadership qualities in order to be able
to control his employee in an efficient manner. The employee must
submit voluntarily to his authority. This preferable must be
established before beginning training.

e. PROFESSIONAL ATTITUDE:

The CI agent is impartial, firm and kind. He shows a sincere
interest in his employee and in his abilities. The CI agent's
attitude influences greatly the behavior of the employee and in the
success the latter nay have. It is obvious that the instructor's
professional attitude, his knowledge of the subject, and his
dedication to this type of work must be genuine.

G. TRAINING AIDS:

1. Various factors determine the selection of the training
place.

a. The time the CI agent and the employee have

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available.
b. The type of operation that is going to be carried out.
c. Security of the operation.

The CI agent will select the time and place that they should
meet. Each case and each employee presents a particular problem.

2. Frequently would be necessary to conduct the employee's
training in the area where the guerrillas operate, when this
employee resides inside this area and it is not possible to justify
his absence. In such cases, the training could be carried out in
places such as an abandoned rural area, a hotel room or an
apartment. The security and establishment of an appropriate
identity to justify the meeting are the most important factors that
must be kept in mind in selecting a place that is appropriate for
training. Nevertheless, if the employee resides in a place which
is outside the limits of the area controlled by guerrilla elements,
or if under pretext of a business trip, vacations, etc., the
employee could be " taken away" from the area where he resides, the
training could be carried out with all tranquility in a safe area.

3. In rare occasions training is conducted in the formal
environment of a classroom. The training aids could be effectively
used in an informal setting always taking the pertinent security
measures. The training equipment consisting of photographs, models
and booklets that help to identify the objective could be prepared
by the CI agent. If the mission demands it, technical equipment
such as photographic cameras and recording devices could be added.

4. A warning for the instructor:

Must not show the employee exactly the objects or distinctive
characteristics about which he must inform, but should show him
objects of the same type which the employee could recognize and
inform in that respect.

5. Some employees affirm of having seen exactly what has been
shown to then during training, if the CI agent is not careful. to
prevent this from occurring. scale models of border obstacles and
defense models greatly contribute to lessen the psychological
impact of these barriers in the mind of the employee. At times is
not easy to obtain appropriate training aids; however, with a
little effort, initiative and ingenuity satisfactory training aids
could be obtained. The CI agent must be careful in concealing the
training aids when he goes to the training place and when he
returns from it. He must carry then with much dissimulation, such
as a traveling bag bought locally or in a box which does not draw
the attention. When the employee knows what is expected from him,
understands the mission that he is going to carry out, has overcome
the fear of the unknown, then he will be able to carry out the

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mission serenely and with success.

H. LEARNING PRINCIPLES:

The CI agent must know the basic learning principles in a way
that he can use them to his own benefit during the employees
training.

1. MOTIVATION:

The first and probably the most important of these principles is
motivation. The employee had some motive which drove him to accept
to work without or your organization. However, this does not end
here. You must do everything possible to maintain and if possible
to increase the motivation of the employee.

That is not an easy task, nevertheless, it is an essential
factor and an absolute prior requirement for the future success of
the employee. It is necessary to motivate again the employee in,
each opportunity. Remember that:
a. Frequently the employee himself does not really know what
is that drives him to do certain things.

b. It is rare that a person is driven by a single motive; the
majority of persons have various motives that drive them to do
certain things or to act in a certain way.

c. It is not important what the reason may be, make certain
of having identified it and use it advantageously.

d. If you recognize certain powerful reasons that motivate an
employee, develop them, making certain that the employee does not
understand that you have analyzed him.

The instructor could evaluate the present political situation to
motivate many of his employees. For that reason me must keep up to
date with the political events reading the governmental and anti-
governmental papers. Keeping informed of the situation, the
instructor could initiate his training session citing the damage
that the guerrilla elements are causing to the country.

The majority of the employees with whom you deal will have
personal reasons, such as monetary remuneration, protection of
their families, etc., however, it you convince these employees that
they also are contributing to the welfare of their country, your
operation will have greater success.

Some ways to motivate an employee during training are:

1) Demonstrating the need for training:
Include valid reasons for which your employee must
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receive specific training. Emphasize the fact that his future
success and perhaps his life could depend on his training.

2) Maintaining the employee's interest:
Make use of your personality, show enthusiasm, examples and
illustrations. While more interesting is the material that the
employee would learn quickly.

3) Encourage the employee to excel during the first stages of
training:

The desire to excel is a strong force that drives the employee
and strengthens him during training. During the first stages of
the training program give the employee the opportunity to show his
aptitude for observation and recognition of objects. Assign him
simple missions which, if successfully completed, will increase his
confidence in himself and in you.

4) Recognizing his merits:

Mention the good points of some work which the employee may have
done. Begin with a favorable comment and then suggest different
ways of improving his work.

2. OBJECTIVE:

This simply signifies giving the employee an incentive which
stimulates him to work and indicate to him the degree of expertise
that you expect him to acquire.

3. ACTION:

Should offer the employee the opportunity to think, speak, write
and resolve problems during training.

4. REALISM:

This principle is sufficiently easy to adapt immediately to
training. Present to employee material such as he will use in
practice. Assign him simple test missions to give the employee a
real idea of the task that he will have to face.

5. APPRECIATION:

Training is complete when the employee has acquired the
attitude, appreciation, interest, ideals and habits that would
allow him to apply correctly what he has been taught. Also he must
have acquired drive, initiative and ingenuity. All these qualities
are not directly taught but are rather acquired as a result of a
program of fruitful training.

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I. ELIMINATION OF OBSTACLES

1. Each employee will react differently to discipline that he
has to be subjected and it is possible that many of them will
appear apprehensive. Perhaps he will begin worrying by the nature
of the task that will be assigned to bin, for the security of his
family or by the type of compensation that he will receive. The Ci
agent must try to dispel these fears shoving the employee that
these obstacles are known, that he can overcome then and that the
training which he will receive will help him eliminate the
operational barriers easily. Every employee will have doubts and
fears, which the CI agent will have to take into consideration and
try to remove in a way that the employee can concentrate in his
training.

2. A step towards the solution of these difficulties is the
development of a wall defined training plan based on the employee
abilities, that will help him perform successfully the tasks
assigned to him. The aptitude which the CI agent has shown during
training will contribute to develop the employee's confidence. The
physical distractions, such as deficient lighting, will impede
training, consequently, it will be necessary to eliminate them by
selecting an appropriate training place. in addition, must remember
to bring to training place and offer to employee some refreshment
for the purpose of breaking the tension and begin the training in
a cordial environment. Must be alert at all times and observe all
reactions of the employee during training.

3. Other factors which the agent must keep in mind is that, it
is natural for the employee to appear reluctant to accept what is
new for him or which will force him to change his habits. One of
the principal causes of this attitude is that the employee perhaps
is under the impression that the agent is determined to change his
way of living. This obstacle could be overcome by placing on
himself a strict discipline and limiting the basic training points
to some simple problems, must not burden the employee with
unnecessary details. Also, at times the entire training could be
developed around the basic idea that the employee-. will go to
places that he is used to visit and that he will do nothing out of
the ordinary. The only difference is that he will observe and
report in that respect.

4. The questions which reflect doubts, fears or insecurity of
the employee must be answered frankly and sincerely as in may be
possible; but above all, must not make promises that cannot be met.
Proceeding with impartiality, understanding and courtesy, you could
exercise great influence in the future success of the employee.


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J. TRAINING PHASES:

1. Many of the tasks assigned to employee could consist in
actions tending to preserve the individual security and of the
call, to develop secret communications and to live a fictitious
identity. These tasks are an very important part of the employee
Is mission, just as it is the collection of information. Also, the
employee could be assigned a special operational mission such as to
locate, investigate, recruit and train other employees. The
employee could also contribute to the operation, acting as support
personnel or as supervisor. All these tasks require training and
represent different problems to CI agent in charge of training.

2. In a general way, the training could be considered in three
general phases:

PHASE i: Immediately after the employee agrees to work for
the agent.

PHASE 11: The general preparation for the mission.

PHASE iii: special preparation for the mission.

a. PHASE I: is that in which immediately after the employee
agrees to work. It consists in pertinent instructions to
communication means which must be established; the need to take
security measures; and the identity that must be established to
justify the concerted meetings between the employee and the CI
agent.

b. PHASE Ii: The employee is prepared for the mission. He
is not informed about the nature of the mission, but he is rather
given instructions about all the subjects that he must know. The
communication means, security measures and identity are explained
in detail and are adapted to the individual.

Then he taught subjects of general nature such as:

1) Map reading

2) Use of compass

3) Preparation of sketches

4) Observation and description.

5) Annotation of information.

c. PHASE III: It is a special training pertaining to the
mission. It includes technical training in any pieces of equipment
the mission demands. This could be a vehicle, a photographic
camera, or a radio apparatus. The employee will also

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receive more specific instructions about security, communications
and identity.


d. COMPLETE DISCUSSION OF THE THREE PHASES OF TRAINING:

1) PHASE I:

In this phase security is very elemental. He has agreed to work
even when he does not know the dangers to which he exposes himself
if his activities were discovered by the guerrilla elements. One
must keep in mind the existence of these dangers and also make him
understand that he will not be of any value for the CI agent if the
guerrilla elements discovered his activities. Should be explained
to him that the least carelessness on his part could betray him,
that the best way to protect.himself is to act naturally, not to
change his normal routine of his daily life and to avoid drawing
attention, and he must not discuss with any one , not with his
wife, friend, or with his parents, his true relationship with the
CI agent. After it is ascertained that he will follow to the
letter these simple instructions he will not run any danger and the
mission will be successful. This training phase is presented at
the same meeting in which it was proposed to the individual to work
for the government. The pertinent indoctrination to security
begins as soon as the individual agrees to work.

The identity for the recruitment meeting will have already been
established and, as part of the security training, will be
explained to employee that he must act naturally. However, the CI
agent must give a simple explanation about he identity of the
meeting in case and it is interrupted by strangers, public
officials, guerrilla elements, friends or relatives. The employee
must indicate the identity he will use for the following meeting
and, according to aptitude of the individual, for the subsequent
meetings. However, if the employee is assigned a special mission
which requires a fictitious identity, only then the identity of the
following meeting will be established. The pertinent instructions
to the identity are given to employee as part of phase I are very
simple and are related with his true identity. The pertinent
training to security and to identity are closely related.

Phase I of the training pertinent to communication means is
presented at the end of the meeting dedicated to recruitment of the
employee. This phase consists simply in the instructions that are
give for the purpose of establishing the future meetings. it is
explained to employee that he will communicate in a certain
prescribed manner for the purpose of setting the time and Place of
the next meeting. The CI agent must also keep in mind the security
of the mission, therefore, he must not reveal to employee more than
he really needs to know.

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2) PHASE ii: This phase begins after the employee has bean
recruited and is qualified in those skills that could be used in
more than one mission. This phase could be considered as a general
training which covers those basic skills which the CI agent
considers necessary for the collection of information. The tasks
that have to be carried out shall determine which type of training
must be given to employee. For example, a guide does not need
assistance in the technique of observation and description,
however, he needs training in the techniques necessary to avoid the
security measures of the guerrilla elements.

The lecture and the use of maps is one of the most important
training which the agent could teach the employee in phase II. The
purpose of the map in to allow / discover the surface of an area
with all his principal characteristics such as the ones that the
employee will see on the terrain. When it is correctly used, the
map could indicate exactly the distances, places, elevations, best
routes, the principal terrain characteristics and information about
concealment and cover for the use of the employee.

The employee normally will be able to determine his own location
with a relatively small adjacent area or in relation to roads,
paths or villages through where he usually travels in his daily
activities. This ability is not always adequate for presentation
of information, because the employee must be able to locate in a
uniform and precise manner different points in any part of his
area. In addition, will be able to sue the maps to identify places
which are not easy to relate with characteristic points of the-
known terrain. The most easier maps to train the employee are
those obtained locally from private companies. The training in map
reading is conducted gradually until the employee learns thoroughly
this technique. once the employee recognizes well the surface of
the terrain, he will be able to identify any movement or activity
which is carried out in said terrain. The simple knowledge of the
location of an object, the distance and elevation that it is
located, and the shape and decline of the terrain will have little
value for the employee unless he knows well the direction in which
could travel or the direction in which the guerrillas have moved.
The training given an employee on raap reading also includes
instructions how to trace hastily a topographic map of an area, a
road or the position of the guerrillas. The employee could be
taught to trace a single line to indicate the horizon Just as the
employee sees it from his observation point. Must insist that the
employee include in his sketch characteristic points of the terrain
easy to recognize in a way that the area could be found on the map.

Phase II could also include the use of compass and the
preparation of outlines. This is not a difficult task, therefore,
the employee must progress rapidly. This training is offered for
a followup orientation of a practice exercise. A great part of the

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practice that will be needed to acquire the experience in map
treading and the use of the compass, he could carry out on his own.
Therefore, this in an advantageous factor for the security of the
mission.

The art of observation and description is another subject that
could be taught to employee as part of phase 11. In daily life, a
person usually is aware of what happens within the small circle of
his vision and he is only aware of what happens outside this circle
when something exceptional draws his attention.

Inconsistent observation habits result in incomplete and
confused impressions. The conscious observation allows the
employee to recognize, record and report objects and persons in a
way that the information which he submits to CI agent will be
clear, complete and concise. Teach the employee to acquire new
observation habits in a way that he could describe in detail the
objects and persons; direct his attention to perceive the
exceptional together with the routine, and to develop new skills
and observation techniques. Both must know the obstacles which
limit the employee's vision. The employee must learn to eliminate
these obstacles using patrol techniques to a better observation
position.

Together with the observation and description techniques the
employee learns to calculate the time and distances. Frequently
this will be difficult in areas where the activities are not
carried out at specific times. However, in order to be able to
submit correct reports, it will be necessary to train the employee
in these skills. If he has access to a wrist watch or any other
type, he could be taught to read it if it were necessary. He could
be provided a wrist watch provided it fits with his identity. The
employee must be able at least to estimate the time making
reference to a given ==ant, for example "immediately after siesta",
or " exactly at sunset". The majority of the employees could learn
to calculate distances and sizes, making again reference to known
things. The agent could determine more or less the size of a
vehicle belonging to guerrillas if the employee explains that this
was " so high like a fully developed steers and so long like two
completely developed steers". It will be necessary to-repeat the
training and submit the employee to numerous tests until he learns
to be exact in his calculations.

The observation and description and calculation of time and
distances techniques are some of the most basic skills. They could
be carried out with a minimum of risk, since they do not require
any special equipment and practice exercises could be used in which
the employee learns these skills as soon as possible. The employee
will use all techniques that he has been taught, consequently, they
must not be dealt as separate subjects, but rather must be
integrated to form a complete training program.

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Phase II probably would also include the preparation of
sketches. The sketch consist in representing correctly ideas in
graphic form without the use of special instruments. The employee
uses the sketch to make certain that what he is describing is
understood, therefore, his sketches must be precise, exact,
proportionate and easy to understand. The use of sketches tends to
make the observer more methodical, since he is looking carefully
for correct details to copy on paper and for that his verbal
explanations will have even more value. For the preparation of
sketches he only needs a minimum amount of equipment. These
material are easy to obtain in almost any part of the world and
they are easy to hide. Almost any type of paper can be used, but
if it was necessary a piece of cloth, an animal skin, and even the
bark or the leaves of certain types of trees could be used in its
place. The sketching instrument could be a ball-point pen, a
pencil, a piece of wax, a piece of chalk or even a piece of wood
with the tip burned. The most simple type of sketch if the lineal
sketch that way the terrain is divided or the object is so tall.
This simply is a map/sketch which describes the contours, the
borders, etc., to that a legend is added for the purpose of
explaining the objects represented and the dimensions and
directions which appear in the sketch. Because the artificial
objects are designed according to geometry rules, some of these
basic rules could be to employee in order to be able to draw a
sketch. It is not necessary that he is an artist. Even when it
does not serve any other purpose, the sketch serves to retain and
remember what has been observed in the past. However, the employee
must acquire sufficient skill in a way that his sketches are easy
to understand.

Just like the other general subjects that are taught to employee
as part of phase 11, the tracing of sketches could be combined with
other subjects during practice exercises. This serves especially
well for sessions in which observation and description is
practiced. Due to the fact that this subject is simple, it could
be taught with sufficient security and be practiced without
arousing suspicion.

The security in phase II is an important factor. In phase I it
was simply explained to employee that eh must act naturally and he
was warned not to confide to anyone., The security in phase II is
more complex and it begins in the meeting following the
recruitment.

As we know, the major part of training during phase Ii provides
the employee the general skills that he needs to carry out his
task. The security training which the employee receives during
phase 11 must provide him with the necessary knowledge to protect
his training sessions. The training in general which the employee
will receive pertaining to reading of maps, observation and
description of objects and parsons, the preparation of sketches,
etc., could change his normal living pattern. Therefore, the CI

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agent must teach him different ways of giving excuses of
convenience to friendss and to family to justify his absence during
these training sessions. These explanations must be logical and
simple. The emplouyee must learn how to determine if they are
watching him, following or investigating him and what measures be
must take. He must not only have an explanation to justify the
interviews which be will frequently have, but also the trips that
he will have to make as part of the training program. Another
factor that must be taken into consideration is that he must have
a logical explanation to justify the new skills he is learning, or
must abstain from showing them. For example, if you have taught an
employee how to tell time, he must fabricate a logical story to
explain where, how and why he has acquired this ski11 or must
continue pretending that he does not know how to tell time.
Showing new skills without any doubt will draw attention to
employee, which could expose his value as a discreet observer. The
remuneration of the employee, according to prior arrangement with
the same, could be made during the training sessions. The employee
must be warned not to spend his money in a way that draws
attention. Any equipment given to employee as part of his training
must be protected either through a logical explanation or be kept
hidden. Even such simple things like a notebook and a pencil could
cause problems it the employee was not accustomed to using these
material. The equipment acquired locally in most cases would pass
unnoticed much easier than equipment acquired at a distant place.
An important factor regarding security training is the social
position of the employee. A simple farmer who is recruited and
trained in a rural area to work in the same area would only need to
know the basic principles of security training. His living pattern
would change so little after being recruited, that would only be
necessary to explain to him that he must not confide to anyone the
information he has.

However, there are vcases in which the employee could occupy a
high position in an organization which maintains strict security
measures. Being so, this employee needs much more training about
security in order to protect himself and to be able to carry out
his mission. The training given this employee will have to be
adequate to his mission and to security measures that the
organization uses.

Phase I pertaining to communications mainly consisted in
instructions about how to coordinate the next interview. Phase II
begins with a session following the recruitment. This is a general
instruction about communications which includes the communication
means that they use during the training period and the
communication means that will be used in the course of the mission.
The communications they will maintain during this period will
consist in their greater part in instructions on the part of the CI
agent to employee. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to establish
a system through which the employee could communicate with the CI
agent in case of emergency. Three channels of communication are
established:

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The normal channel: Will be used to attend to normal problems
and it is the one that will be used more frequently.

The secondary channel: Will be used in case the normal channel
cannot be used.

The emergency channel: it is used when the normal channel as
wall as the secondary are not adequate.

In the case this system of three channel communications is used,
it must be explained to employee that eh must know how it functions
and how to use it. This system will be modified as it may be
necessary in the course of the mission. If its functioning Is
understood at the beginning of the training will be adapted to
changes that may occur and the training period will be carried out
with greater security. These periods include personal interviews.
The CI agent will determine the time and place of these interviews.
It is very possible that these. interviews could be conducted at
the same time and in the same place during the training periods.
This will depend on the situation and the identity that is used to
justify them.

During the second part of phase II pertaining to security, the
employee receives general information about the communication that
he will need to complete the mission. He must know the three
channel communication system and the diverse signals that are used
to activate each system. If the conditions allow it, he will be
given instructions about the use of a telephone that could be used-
to set up a personal interview, which normally must not be used to
transmit intelligence information, since it must be assumed that a
telephone conversation could be intercepted. If the employee has
to use the communication devices during the fulfillment of his
mission, it should be explained to him which they are and how they
must be used. In order to. prevent operational elements from
establishing direct contact, a secure hiding place is designated
before hand where a person deposits the information or material to
be picked up by another person. Perhaps the employee may have to
try to deal with a person who keeps the information temporarily or
the material deposited by another person and subsequently is picked
up by another, or with a messenger, that is to say, any individual
who knowingly, carries messages and material between two points or
individuals. In these cases, it is possible that the same employee
is assigned the mission of custody and messenger, for which the
major part of phase II of his training will deal about this aspect
of the instruction. If his mission demands that the employee knows
an address of convenience, an address in which the custodian could
receive a form of public communication ( letter, post card,
telegram, etc.), and keep it to be picked up or sent to CI agent or
to a specific individual, he must receive instructions how the
convenience address operates and how it will be used. The employee
must know the signals that

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are used to set up the interviews. A signal is a signal agreed
between two individuals to indicate a secret understanding. For
example, you have sat up with the employee that along a specific
road through which he travels every day to go and come from his
jobp he must look for a mark on a certain rock that is at the side
of the road. Having a mark, that would signify to employee that
there will be no interview. These signals are explained to
employee in order to be able to use them during training and also
later on during the operation.- Just as it was previously
explained, th a greater part of phase 11 pertaining to
communications will deal with those means that the employee will
use during training or that general information about
communications which he will need to carry out the missions that
are later one assigned to him.

Nevertheless, one must keep in mind that some employees have the
mission of "being converted" to an address of convenience, a
custodian or a messenger, and therefore, the greater part of their
training evolves around the specific mission they will have to
carry out. The amount of training which the employee receives
about any subject will depend on the nature of his mission.

Phase II pertaining to the identity will consist in its major
part in teaching the employee the art of fabricating explanations
to justify his frequent interviews with the CI agent, trips that he
makes to go to interview places or practice exercises. It is also
necessary to give a convincing explanation about the acquisition
and use of any equipment that the employee could receive as part of
his training. For example, he could give as excuse that he is
planning a trip to justify the acquisition of a map, or a gift on
the part of the government to residents of a village would be a
good explanation in regards to paper and pencils that may have been
received. certain recently acquired skills could be difficult to
explain. In this case, the employee must be warned to refrain from
displaying said skills. Perhaps a parallel training program could
be established tending to conceal the true nature of training. The
remuneration which he receives should also be accompanied with a
credible explanation. In the instruction whi ch we give about the
remuneration of employees, we shall discuss this problem in detail,
however, one must keep in mind that the employee will not be of any
value if he draws attention due to sudden increase of his income.

In the first place, phase II pertaining to identity will consist
in providing the employee an identity that he could use during
training. Nevertheless, if he has been assigned a mission that
requires a fictitious identity, he will receive a more detailed
training and will be prepared for said mission. Likewise, some
employees are promoted to supervisors and, therefore, will need a
much more detailed training on the use of a fictitious identity. we
emphasize again, the amount of training that an

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employee receives in this aspect of training will depend on the
nature of his mission.


3) PHASE III:

After the employee has been recruited, he receives basic
training, that is phase 1, of the pertinent security training, the
communication means and use of identity. From the moment he is
recruited until he is ready for his mission, the employee receives
a general training of instruction, which will provide him the basic
knowledge that he will use in the fulfillment of his mission. When
the CI agent thinks that the employee is ready, then phase II of
training will begin, during which he learns specific details that
he will need to complete his mission. Phase III includes not only
the orientation required for a particular mission, but also any
special skills which he employee needs even. when the need is
possibly for one time.

This phase could include instruction in any type of technical
equipment which he will need to carry out a specific task. It is
possible that he may have to take photographs of specific
installations, group of people or equipment.Therefore, he will have
to be taught how to use a photographic camera. Perhaps the mission
requires to drive a vehicle, if that is so, it is necessary to
learn this technique. What he must kept in mind is that the
employee has to use specific skills many times, he must receive
instructions in that respect as part of phase 11. If this skill is
mainly needed for a single case, it is during phase III when he
acquires this technical knowledge.

Just as you will remember, an orientation could be considered as
a training extension of the employee that includes specific skills.
Every employee receives an orientation before he is sent to carry
out a mission. This orientation is part of phase 111, since it
consists in specific instructions. This segment of training
includes also a period of questions and answers during which the
employee could clarify any doubts he may have.

Phase III pertaining to security is more precise. The employee
is told that he must not reveal his mission or his relationship
with the CI agent to anyone. He is also taught how he must conduct
himself during the fulfillment of his mission. He learns all
pertinent details about security around his objective and the best
way to avoid being discovered by guerrilla security elements. If
the employee learns to handle en equipment he must also learn what
security measures must be used to protect himself and the
equipment,

Phase III pertaining to communications includes those specific
details that the employee needs to know in order to be able to
receive instructions on the part of the CI agent and to

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transmit information. Radio communication allows for the quick
transmission of information and adds an element of control on the
information in inaccessible areas to the agent. If the employee
has to use a radio receiver as part of his mission, he will receive
instructions in the use of this equipment during this phase. At
the same time, the employee could be taught the use of invisible
ink and code messages in the event there is need to use them. The
signals, communication devices and the means to transmit messages
which the employee will use are carefully reviewed here. When the
employee understands his mission, the agent must make certain that
he will be able to establish a means of communication with the
former in order to be able to receive the information that he is
pursuing.

Phase III pertaining to the identity includes those aspects of
training which he needs for the collection of information. Perhaps
he needs an identity to travel to area of operations and another
different identity while he is inside this area. He could assume
an entirely different identity to communicate with the agent. In
many cases, the identity which the employee received during phase
II will continue, modified only a little. The true identity is
usually best and will require few changes. Naturally, he must be
informed about the story invented to explain any equipment that the
employee could receive for his mission. in some cases, the story
will not be effective and the equipment must be concealed. The
training about the identity of phase III could be no more than a
revision of the identity with the employee to make certain that he
understand why all these aspects are necessary.

SUMMARY:

We have covered various training fundamentals of the employee,
the learning principles, the five training phases, the dissuasive
factor to disseminate the learning and how to overcome them, and
how to apply all this in your case as instructor of the employee.
We have explained the three training phases of the employee which
involve security, communications and identity, and various other
subjects about which the employee could be taught. To train an
employee in the field, the techniques will be and must be different
than those of the classroom used here. The training will be
individual, this will be carried out under discreet conditions and
will not be uniform, but is adopted to individual employee.

The most important technique used during training of the
employee is that of maintaining harmony with learning. A good
employee must be duly motivated. An unsatisfied employee is a
considerable security risk. In order to motivate another person,
one must motivate himself. In order to train another person, one
must know the subject. In order to establish and maintain harmony,
the employee must have confidence in his instructor. A good agent,
who wishes to be a good instructor, must be sincere and be able to
convey this sincerity to employee.

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Contact us

SOA Watch
733 Euclid Street NW
Washington, DC 20001

phone: 202-234-3440
email: info@soaw.org