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Home Facts Graduates Notorious Grads Notorious Graduates from Colombia
Notorious Graduates from Colombia PDF Print E-mail

For a summary of the most notorious grads from Colombia click here

Name: Colonel Alvaro Quijano
Dates/courses: Instructor of Peacekeeping Operations and Democratic Sustainment courses at the school from 2003 to 2004
Info: Col. Alvaro Quijano led a special counterinsurgency unit in western Colombia — a drug cartel stronghold — and he and other soldiers who attended the SOA were arrested in 2007.  They were arrested for allegedly providing security for the Norte del Valle cartel's leader and most-wanted drug lord, Diego Montoya, is on the FBI’s 10 most-wanted list.

Name:
General Luis Bernardo Urbina Sanchez
Dates/courses: Command and General Staff Course, 1985
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity, 1988-89 -- Fellow SOA graduate Meneses Baez confessed to Urbina Sanchez' involvement in paramilitary death squads, which he referred to as "self-defense' groups; Disappearance, assassination, 1989 -- Implicated in the assassination of Amparo Tordecilla.  Assassination, 1987 -- Implicated in the assassination of Union Patriotica member Alvaro Garces Parra. Disappearance, torture, assassination, 1987 -- Ordered the detention, torture and assassination of Mario Alexander Granados Plazas. Disappearance, 1986 -- Intellectual author of the detention/disappearance of William Camacho Barajas and Orlando Garcia Gonzalez. Torture, disappearance, 1977 -- Implicated in the torture of Omaira Montoya Henao and Mauricio Trujillo, and the subsequent disappearance of Omaira Montoya. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Luis Alfonso Zapata Uribe
Dates/courses: Counter-insurgency, Small-Unit Infantry Tactics C-7, 1976
Info: San Jose Killings: Has commanded the 17th Brigade of the Colombian Army since May 2005., whom were involved in the November 17th, 2005, killing of Arlen Salas David, a leader of the Peace Community of San Jose de Apartado, Antioquia.

The soldiers accused, along with members of the self-defense forces [paramilitaries], of the slaughter are Colonel Orlando Espinosa Beltrán, Major José Fernando Castaño López, Luitenant Alejandro Jaramillo Giraldo, Captian Sabarain Cruz Reina, Sargent Ángel María Padilla Petro, Sargent Jorge Humberto Milanés Vega, Sargent Henry Agudelo Guasmayan Ortega, Sargent Édgar Garciá Estupiñón, Sargent Darío Brango Agamez, and Captain Ricardo Bastidas Candia. Criminal proceedings against the soldiers were brought on February 26, 2009 for murder of protected persons, acts of extreme cruelty, and conspiracy as part of their participation in the February 21, 2005 massacre in which eight people, including four children, were murdered..(El Tiempo, Jan. 2010)

Name: General Harold Bedoya Pizarro
Dates/courses: 1978-79, SOA Guest Instructor;1965, Military Intelligence Course
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity, 1965 - present: "Throughout Bedoya's entire career, he has been Implicated with the sponsorship and organization of a network of paramilitary organizations. Bedoya, who has never undergone any investigation for his involvement in the massacres of non-combatants or other dirty-war crimes, is an articulate proponent of the continued "legal" involvement of local populations in counterinsurgency operations." (Ana Carrigan, NACLA Report on the Americas, March/April 1995) Paramilitary death squad activity ("AAA"), 1978: Believed to be thefounder and chief of the paramilitary death squad known as "AAA" (American Anti-communist Alliance). (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Other prominent members of the AAA Paramilitary group graduated from the SOA include: Tte. Cnel. Mario Montoya Uribe (1993, SOA Guest Instructor; 1983, Tactical Officer, Cadet Arms) Maj Jorge Flores Suarez (1972, Military Intelligence Officer Course)

Name: Major Alejandro de Jesus Alvarez Henao
Dates/courses: 1984, Joint Operations
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1982: Principal member of
"Muerte a Secuestradores" (MAS), a paramilitary death squad responsible
for numerous assassinations and disappearances. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN
COLOMBIA, 1992)

Other prominent members of MAS Paramilitary group graduated from the SOA include: LTC Virgilio Anzola Montero (1967, Cadet Orientation Course), GEN Carlos Julio Gil Colorado (1969, 0-6), GEN Farouk Yanine Diaz (1990, Guest speaker; 1991, Guest speaker; 1969, Maintenance Orientation Course)


Name: First Lieutenant Luis Enrique Andrade Ortiz
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Massacre of a judicial commission, 1989: Believed to be the intellectual author of the paramilitary massacre of 12 officials, including 2 judges, who were investigating military/paramilitary cooperation.
Assassination, 1988: Ordered the assassination of farmer Jorge Ramirez, carried out by a military/paramilitary patrol under his command.
Assassination, 1988: Ordered the assassination of Jose Sanchez, also carried out by military/paramilitary soldiers under his command. Then he had the corpse put on display for the benefit of the public.
Ramirez family massacre, 1986: Andrade Ortiz was one of officers in charge of military/paramilitary soldiers who broke into the home of the Ramirez family, killed two members outright; and captured 4 others whose bodies were found later with signs of torture. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN
COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Hernan Jose Guzman Rodriguez
Dates/courses: 1993, SOA "Hall of Fame"; 1969, Maintenance Orientation
Info: Former Commander, Colombian Army, dismissed: With five other top military officers, Guzman Rodriguez was dismissed on November 22, 1994 by President Ernesto Samper. Samper overhauled the military leadership in the hopes of decreasing corruption and drug trafficking in the armed
forces, and Improving the human rights record of the military. (Reuters, 11/22/94)
Paramilitary activity (MAS), 1987-90: Guzman Rodriguez protected and
aided paramilitary death squad MAS between 1987 and 1990, when it was
responsible for the deaths of at least 149 people. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO
EN COLOMBIA, 1992)
Illegal detention, torture, extrajudicial execution, 1986: Guzman Rodriguez commanded the soldiers who detained, tortured, gang raped and executed Yolanda Acevedo Carvajal - then concocted the story that she committed suicide by shooting herself in the nape of her neck. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Roberto Hernandez Hernandez
Dates/courses: 1970, Automotive Maintenance Officer; 1976, Tactical Officer, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1980-90: Consistently implicated in paramilitary
activities in association with members of the extreme right.
Torture, 1990: Supervised the illegal detention and torture of 42
people, most of whom were union members and human rights workers.
Trujillo massacre, 1990: Implicated in the gruesome killings in
Trujillo, in which many victims were dismembered with chain saws.
(TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Carlos Enrique Martinez Orozco
Dates/courses: 1975, Guerrilla Warfare Operations
Info: Massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 18 miners in Antioquia, whose body parts washed in pieces down the river Nare. Mart?nez Orozco was subsequently promoted.
Paramilitary activity, 1990: Protected a chief paramilitarist responsible for high-profile assassinations; and in June 1992 was charged in a military court for his connection to paramilitaries.
(Amnesty International Report: Colombia: Political Violence: Myth and Reality; TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Gustavo Pardo Ariza
Dates/courses: 1971, Irregular Warfare Operations
Info: Escape of Pablo Escobar, 1992: Pardo was one of three Army officers (two of them SOA graduates) forced into retirement upon the "escape" of Pablo Escobar from prison. Pardo was head of the Fourth Brigade in Medellin; soldiers under his command were supposed to be guarding the prison from which Escobar literally walked away. (Americas Watch Report: State of War Politcal Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: General Rafael Samudio Molina
Dates/courses: 1988, SOA "Hall of Fame"; 1970, SOA Guest Instructor
Info: Massacre at the Palace of Justice, November 7, 1985: Oversaw the Army massacre at the Palace of Justice following an attempt by the M-19 to take it over. The Army under his command set the building ablaze, resulting in the needless and horrifying deaths of many of the hostages. Other hostages were killed in Army crossfire, or, as some suspect, direct assassination. Even the hostages who lived through the horrifying ordeal were not safe; some were killed before exiting the palace and others were arrested and disappeared immediately upon leaving the building. Taped conversations between Samudio Molina and his commanders in the building establish that at no time did Samudio Molina act as an agent of the civilian government, but rather used the situation to prove the brutality of the Colombian military and to eliminate individuals, including Supreme Court justices, who were not staunch enough allies of the Colombian Army. (POJ) Samudio Molina has also been implicated in paramilitary activities since 1978. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Farouk Yanine Diaz
Dates/courses:
1990, Guest speaker; 1991, Guest speaker; 1969,
Maintenance Orientation Course
Info: Urabá massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 20 banana workers in Antioqua in March 1988.
Assassination, 1987: Implicated in the assassination of the mayor of Sabana de Torres, Alvaro Garces Parra.
Paramilitary activities (MAS), 1984-85: Implicated in paramilitary activities associated with the death squad MAS. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)
Massacre of 19 businessmen, 1987: After an investigation that linked Yanine to this 1987 massacre, the public prosecutor’s office issued an arrest warrant for Yanine, who was at that time giving classes at the Inter-American Defense College in Washington. Upon return to Colombia, Yanine was detained, but, in a decision criticized by the U.S. State Department, among others, his case was quickly passed to a military court where he was absolved. (Colombia: Derechos humanos y derechos
humanitarios, Comision Colombiana de Juristas, 1997) According to the 1998 State Department Report on Human Rights in Colombia, “Despite the government’s attempts to bring him to justice in the civilian court system, the military prevailed, continuing the tradition of impunity for all but the lowest-ranking members of the security forces.” According to former SOA instructor Maj. Joseph Blair, Yanine visited the SOA as a guest speaker from 1986 to 1989 on an annual basis and was a close personal friend of US Army Col. Miguel Garcia, who was the commandant of the SOA at the time.

Name:
Cadete Ritoalejo del Rio Rojas
Dates/courses: 1967, Cadet Orientation Course
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1985: Implicated in paramilitary activities, including the theft of an Army weapons shipment. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992) In 1999, President Pastrana sent Del Rio into retirement without explanation, at a time when he was under investigation by the federal Prosecutor’s Office for alleged human rights abuses and could face criminal charges. (Miami Herald 4/10/99)

Name: First Lieutenant Pedro Nei Acosta Gaivis
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Murder of 11 peasants, 1990: Ordered the massacre of 11 peasants, had his men dress the corpses like guerrilla forces, and then dismissed the killings as an armed confrontation between the Army and guerrillas. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Carlos Alberto Acosta
Dates/courses: 1992, Curso de Orientacion de Infanteria para Cadetes (Commandant’s List)
Info: Massacre, 1994: Fled after receiving notice of a 58-year sentence for his participation in the massacre of three people in Lebrija in June 1994. (Vanguardia Liberal, 11/15/97)

Name: General Norberto Adrada Córdoba
Dates/courses: 1978, Training Management Course; 1975, Special Maintenance Administration
Info: Disappearance, 18 June 1986: Covered-up of the murder of William Camacho Barajas and Orlando Garcia González, who were last seen alive in the hands of soldiers under Adrada Córdoba's command. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Delmo William Alba Rincón
Dates/courses: 1984, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Ramírez massacre, 1986: Implicated in the murder of 6 individuals (4 were tortured) from the home of the Ramírez family. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Juan Carlos Alvarez
Dates/courses: 1987, Curso de Operaciones Psicologicas
Info: Death Squad Activity: According to testimony given by Alvarez’ fellow officers to the Colombian attorney general, Alvarez was the officer who gave the go-ahead for death squad killings. (Human Rights Watch Report: Colombia’s Killer Networks and Covert Action Quarterly)

Name: Captain José Ismael Alvarez Díaz
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Disappearance, 26 May 1982: Covered-up the murder of Gustavo Alveiro Muñoz Hurtado, last seen alive with soldiers under Alvarez Díaz' command. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Gilberto Alzate Alzate
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Segovia Massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre at Segovia in which 43 people died, including several children. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Virgilio Anzola Montero
Dates/courses: 1967, Cadet Orientation Course
Info: Torture, murder of 5 peasants, 1986: Covered-up the torture and murder of five peasants by soldiers under his command. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)
Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1982: Anzola Montero used a paramilitary death squad, "Muerte a Secuestradores" (MAS), to carry out assassinations and disappearances.

Name: General José Maria Arbelaez Caballero
Dates/courses: 1954, Communications Officer
Info: Disappearances, 1982: Arbelaez Caballero provided false information to investigators, the media and human rights organizations in order to protect army and police personnel responsible for 13 disappearances in the Cundinamarca department. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Jaime Gabriel Arcos Negret
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Disappearance, 18 January 1988: Implicated in the disappearance of Héctor Suárez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Agustin Ardila Uribe
Dates/courses: 1984, Command and General Staff College (Commandant's List)
Info: lmprisoned town mayor for publishing poem against violence, 1993: In 1993, commander Ardila had town mayor Tirso Velez of Tibu arrested and imprisoned for being a terrorist. His crime? Publishing a poem against both guerrilla and army violence. (Americas Watch Report: State of War:
Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)
Commander, Mobile Brigade 2: Colombia's "Mobile Brigades" are unique in that they have no permanent base; their commanders answer only to the Army high command in Bogotá. Mobile brigade soldiers wear distinctive, U.S. Army-style camouflage and no name patches. A "broad, consistent and often shocking" pattern of serious human rights violations follows the Mobile Brigades - including Ardila's Mobile Brigade 2 - throughout the Colombian countryside. (Americas Watch Report: State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: Captain Carlos Javier Arenas Jiménez
Dates/courses: 1987, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Torture of 19, 1988: Participated in the detention and torture of 19 individuals in June 1988, one of whom sustained permanent damage to both arms. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Second Lieutenant Julio Arenas Vera
Dates/courses: 1985, Combat Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1986: Implicated in the revenge-killing of communist Gustavo Alfonso Macias Borja. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Victor Julio Arevalo Pinilla
Dates/courses: 1975, Special Maintenance, Administration;1971, Engineer Officer Course
Info: Torture, murder, 1989: Strongly implicated in the torture and murder of Reinaldo Cuenca Wilson and Liliana Camacho Ipuz, and in the attempt to make their deaths appear guerrilla-related. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Julio Elias Barrera Bustos
Dates/courses: 1982, Joint Operations Course
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1981-82: Protected and aided the military/paramilitary death squad MAS.

Name: General César Eugenio Barrios Ramírez
Dates/courses: 1968, Military Intelligence Officer Course
Info: Murder 1987: Protected and covered for soldiers responsible for the extrajudicial execution of 3 peasants, and the attempt to disguise the incident as an armed confrontation with guerrillas. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Luis Felipe Becerra Bohorquez
Dates/courses: Not "formally enrolled." (See below.)
Info: Urabá massacre, 1988: Colombian records indicate Becerra Bohorquez attended the U.S. Army School of the Americas in the early 1990's while a warrant was out for his arrest for his leading role in the massacre of 20 banana workers. The SOA claims Becerra Bohorquez was never "formally enrolled" in officer training there. Like Victor Bernal Castaño (next page), and other officers in this section (indicated by #), it appears the Colombian Army sent Becerra Bohorquez to the SOA to avoid criminal investigations at home. Riofrio massacre, 1993: Becerra eventually led another massacre, this time murdering 13 civilians at Riofrio. In November 1993, under intense international pressure, Colombia dismissed Becerra from the military. (MFIR, AW:SW, TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Pedro Vicente Bermudez Lozano
Dates/courses: 1981, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Urabá massacre 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 20 banana workers. Although an investigation called for the dismissal of the soldiers involved, a military court acquitted them, citing lack of evidence. Bermudez was even promoted (along with Becerra Bohorquez, above) during the army's Investigation" of the massacre. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 1992, AW:SW)

Name: Lieutenant Victor Bernal Castaño
Dates/courses: 1992, Command and General Staff College
Info: Fusagasugá massacre, 1991: Colombian legislature asserts that Bernal Castaño was enrolled at the SOA to avoid having to answer to investigators about the Fusagasugá massacre of a peasant family. (Charles Call, Miami Herald, 9/9/92) The SOA enrolled him in its longest and most prestigious course, the Command and General Staff College, and made him "Jefe del Curso," (Chief of Course) Disappearance, 1989: Implicated in the disappearance of peasant Sandra Velez Velez.
Paramilitary death squad activity (Hure): Protected and aided the "Hure" death squad in its criminal activities, including assassinations and disappearances. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Henry Borda
Dates/courses: 1980, Orientacion/Armas para Cadetes
Info: Segovia Massacre, 1988: Judge Martha Luisa Hurtado issued an arrest warrant against Borda and other officials for their failure to prevent the massacre of 43 people in Segovia. All evidence indicates that the police and military officials knew the attack was coming and did nothing to prevent it, to stop it while it was occurring or to detain the attackers as they escaped, driving right by the police station. (Americas Watch Report: Informe sobre derechos humanos en Colombia, 1989)

Name: General Martin Orlando Carrero Sandoval
Dates/courses: 1990, Comando y Estado Mayor
Info: Threats and Intimidation of Human Rights Workers, 1998: On May 24, troops under his command entered a farm located near San Jose de Apartado. They shot a cow, proceeded to carve it up, and stated to all those present that they would do the same to Eduar, a member of the Missionary Team of Justice and Peace. On June 17, soldiers from the same brigade came back and sought out Eduar, demanding that he give them a statement and identify the witnesses of the earlier incident so they could also provide statements. The military did not hide the fact that among them were the very soldiers who had reportedly threatened Eduar. (Inter-Congregational Justice and Peace Commission)

Name: Captain José Gabriel Castrillon Garcia
Dates/courses: 1990, Infantry Officer Basic Course
Info: Disappearance, 1987: Strongly implicated in the abduction and subsequent disappearance of José Jairo Medina Ramírez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Mauricio Cervera Bonilla
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Illegal detention, torture, 1989: Participated in the illegal detention and torture of a union leader and 2 banana workers. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Luis Arturo Cifuentes Mogollón
Dates/courses: 1973, Auto Maintenance Officer Course
Info: Torture, assassination, 1986: Strongly implicated in the torture and extrajudicial execution of M-19 member Yolanda Acevedo Carvajal. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Hernán Alfonso Contreras Soler
Dates/courses: 1971, Special Maintenance Orientation
Info: Torture, disappearance, 1977: Contreras Soler oversaw the capture and torture of Mauricio Trujillo and Omaira Montoya Henao. Montoya Henao was subsequently disappeared. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Francisco Javier Corrales
Dates/courses: 1987, Curso de Orientaci?n de Armas para Cadetes C-3A
Info: Organizing paramilitary groups, 1992: In 1992, the human rights attorney delegate for the armed forces filed charges against Corrales and six other officers for their role in organizing paramilitary groups in the Chucuri region of the department of Santander. (HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH REPORT: COLOMBIA’S KILLER NETWORKS, 1996)

Name: First Lieutenant Edgar Ferrucio Correa Copola
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Llana Caliente massacre, 1988: One of the officers responsible for the massacre of 20 or more peasants detained during a march demanding schools and health clinics. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992

Name: Captain Dario Enrique Cortes Castillo
Dates/courses:1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info:Torture, 1988: Participated in the detention and torture of 19 individuals. One victim sustained permanent damage to both arms. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Second Lieutenant Romulo Cortes Gordon
Dates/courses: 1985, Combat Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1986: Implicated in the revenge-killing of communist Gustavo Alfonso Macias Borja. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Second Lieutenant Tomas Emilio Cruz Amaya
Dates/courses: 1988, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Fusagasugá massacre, 1991: In March 1993, Colombia's attorney general ordered the dismissal of Cruz Amaya for his role in the Fusagasugá massacre of a peasant family. (Americas Watch Report: State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: Lieutenant Carlos Eduardo Dávila Romero
Dates/courses: 1967, Cadet Orientation Course
Info: Paramilitary activities (MAS), 1987-88: Involvement with paramilitary death squads, including "MAS," at times aided by Israeli mercenaries. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Jorge Enrique Duran Arquelles
Dates/courses: 1991, Curso de orientacion de caballeria para cadetes
Info: Massacre, 1991: Named in the massacre of 20 indigenous people in Caloto. (Colombia: Human Rights Abuses against Indigenous Peoples, Amnesty International)

Name: Colonel Jaime Alberto Escobar Garzón
Dates/courses: 1981, Command and General Staff College
Info: Paramilitary activities (MAS), 1982: Implicated in activities associated with the rightist military/paramilitary death squad "MAS" (Muerte a Secuestradores, or 'Death to Kidnappers.)(TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Germán Espinoza Rubio
Dates/courses: 1982, Patrol Operations (Dropped); 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Assassinations, 1982: Assassinated several peasants. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Manuel José Espitia Sotelo
Dates/courses: 1991, Command and General Staff College; 1982, Tactical Officer
Info: Escape of Pablo Escobar, 1992: Espitia Sotelo was forced into early retirement in August 1992 after drug kingpin Pablo Escobar "escaped" from prison, where he was living in grand style. Espitia Sotelo was commander of the military police battalion guarding the prison. (Americas Watch Report: State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993) (Escobar was discovered and killed in 1993.)

Name: Colonel Edgar Hernando Falla Alvira
Dates/courses: 1967, Cadet Orientation Course
Info: Assassinations, 1987: "Intellectual author" of the assassinations of Unión Patriotica leaders José Dario Rodriguez and Fabiola Ruiz. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Carlos Arturo Farfán Quiroga
Dates/courses: 1971, Special Maintenance Orientation
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1987: Publicly supported paramilitary death squads responsible for the assassinations and deaths of several peasants. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Jorge Flores Suárez
Dates/courses: 1972, Military Intelligence Officer Course
Info: Paramilitary death squad ("AAA") activity, 1978: Strongly implicated in the activities of the military/paramilitary death squad "AAA." (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Second Lieutenant Octavio Fonseca Hoyos
Dates/courses: 1985, Combat Arms Orientation
Info: Disappearance, 15 September 1987: Strong evidence links Fonseca Hoyos to the disappearance of Ramón Salvador Angarita Solano. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Héctor Alirio Forero Quintero
Dates/courses: 1977. Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Disappearances, torture, 1988: Commanded a patrol that disappeared 4 people on February 11, 1988. On the same day, he himself detained 2 more individuals and tortured them with the help of fellow SOA graduate Carlos Morales del Rio (below). The last two victims were released to civilian authorities several days later. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Mario Hugo Galan
Dates/courses: 1971, 0-26
Info: Threats to human rights workers, 1998: Recently in the news for calling Human Rights Watch/ Americas director Jose Miguel Vivanco and a Washington Post reporter “enemies of the people” for reporting that the 20th Brigade was being investigated in connection with the murders of human rights defenders. Such a label is tantamount to a death threat.

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Luis Fabio Garcia Correra
Dates/courses: 1985, Command and General Staff College
Info: Denouncing human rights workers, 1993: “In May, June and July 1993, senior army officers of the Nueva Granada Battalion based in Barrancabermeja verbally attacked CREDHOS (Regional Committee for the Defense of Human Rights) workers when they inquired about or tried to visit detainees on the army base. On several occasions, officers, including Battalion Commander Luis Fabio García, accused CREDHOS members of being spokespersons for the guerrillas.” (Americas Watch Report, State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, December 1993)

Name: General Daniel Enrique García Echeverry
Dates/courses: 1976, Command and General Staff College; 1961, Military Intelligence
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1983 - 88, including Urabá massacre: García Echeverry established and ran paramilitary forces wherever he was stationed. Witnesses and ex-members of his units have testified as to his role in planning and running squads in Antioquia and Santander, including his involvement with the paramilitaries who carried out the Urabá massacre of twenty banana workers in 1988. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Fernando Garcia Morales
Dates/courses: 1967, Cadet Orientation
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1986: Ex-members of a paramilitary group from Puerto Boyacá testified that Garcia Morales protected, aided and participated in paramilitary activities during his tenure as a commander of the "Barbula" battalion. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Luis Roberto García Ronderos
Dates/courses: 1983, Patrol Operations
Info: Segovia massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 43 people, including several children, in the town of Segovia. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Ramón Emilia Gil Bermudez
Dates/courses: 1988, Guest Speaker; 1969, Maintenance Orientation
Info: Corruption, 1994: Dismissed from his position as commander of Colombian Armed Forces on November 22, 1994, in an effort by President Ernesto Samper to root out corruption and drug trafficking among the Colombian armed forces. (Reuters, 11/22/94) Death squad activity (MAS) 1982: Established, protected, and participated in the activities of the rightist death squad "MAS."
(TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Carlos Julio Gil Colorado
Dates/courses: 1969, 0-6
Info: Paramilitary activity (including MAS), 1980 - 92: The highest ranking of 7 officers indicted in November 1992 for involvement with paramilitary groups in the Santander department. (Amnesty International Report: Colombia: Political Violence: Myth and Reality, 1994; Americas Watch Report: State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993; Human Rights Watch World Report 1994; TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Bernardo Gil lsaza
Dates/courses: 1981, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Urabá massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 20 banana workers. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Juan Fernando Gomez Gallego
Dates/courses: 1985, Combat Arms Orientation
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1987: Implicated in activities linked to the paramilitary death squad ROJO-ATA. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Oscar Gomez
Dates/courses: 1987, Curso de Orientación de Armas para Cadetes C-3A (Infanteria)
Info: Murder: Gomez is charged with the “aggravated murder” of grassroots leader Antonio Palacios Urrea as well as six other people. (Americas Watch Report: Political Murder and Reform in Colombia, 1992)

Name: Major Leonardo Gómez Vergara
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Branch Orientation
Info: Disappearance, 18 June 1986: Implicated in the disappearance of William Camacho Barajas and Orlando García Gonzalez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Jorge Gonzalez
Dates/courses: 1985, Combat Arms Orientation
Info: Paramilitary activity (MAS), 1981-82: Implicated in activities of the right-wing paramilitary death squad MAS, or "Muerte a Secuestradores" (Death to kidnappers). (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Luis Miguel Gonzalez Monroy
Dates/courses: 1992, Officer Administration Course; 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Illegal detention, torture, extrajudicial execution, 10 May 1986: Implicated in the detention, torture and murder of Yolanda Acevedo Carvajal. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name:GEN Manuel Jaime Guerrero Paz
Dates/courses: 1988, SOA "Hall of Fame"
Info: Mistreatment of prisoners, 1982: In 1982, soldiers under Guerrero Paz' command tortured four prisoners, one of whom died of his injuries. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)
Illegal detention, 1988: In a measure of questionable legality, he personally issued orders for the arrest of ten union leaders, most of whom were released later without charge. (Amnesty International 1989)
Paramilitary activities: Throughout his tenure as armed forces chief and defense minister, the relationship between the Colombian military and paramilitaries remained close, and impunity was the rule for crimes committed by both. (Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth)

Name: Colonel Carlos Guerrero Peña
Dates/courses: 1985, Command and General Staff College; 1977, Military Intelligence Officer
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1986: Strongly implicated in paramilitary activity in Puerto Boyac? (Boyacá). (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA,1992)

Name: General Marino Gutierrez lsaza
Dates/courses:1985-86, Guest instructor; 1973, Military Police Intelligence Officer Course
Info: Disappearance, Murder, 1982: Implicated in the disappearance of Gustavo Albeiro Muñoz Hurtado on 26 May 1982. His cadaver was found the following July 4. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Hermann Hackspiel Olano
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Urabá Massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 20 banana workers. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain David Hernandez
Dates/courses: 1985, Orientacion de Armas de Cadete; 1991, Operaciones Sicologicas
Info: Firing indiscriminately on civilians: In August 1996, troops under Hernandez’s command fired on and used tear gas against a group of protesting peasants, which resulted in four wounded. The soldiers also burned the protesters’ tents and stole money that was intended for the purchase of food. (Noche y neblina: Panorama de derechos humanos y violencia politica en Colombia, Banco de Datos de violencia politica)

Name: First Lieutenant Edgardo Hernández Navarro
Dates/courses: 1985, Combat Arms Orientation Course
Info: Segovia massacre, 1988: Implicated in the early evening massacre of 43 people, including several children, in the town of Segovia. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Alejandro Herrera Fajardo
Dates/courses: 1977, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Disappearance, 1982: Implicated in the disappearances of 13 people in Cundinamarca between 4 March and 11 September 1982. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Second Lieutenant Albeiro Herrera Castaño
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation (Engineer)
Info: Disappearance, 1988: Implicated in the disappearance of 4 peasants in the Santander department. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: COL Leopoldo Hipolito Hincapie Segrera
Dates/courses: 1971, Automotive Maintenance Officer Course
Info: Disappearance, 1988: Implicated in the detention and disappearance of Rene Herrero Ortega. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992) Torture, 1979: Participated in the detention and torture of Olga López Jaramillo. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Hernán Hurtado Vallejo
Dates/courses: 1954, Anti-Aircraft Artillery/Automatic Weapons
Info: Disappearance, murder, 1982: Implicated in the disappearance of Gustavo Albeiro Muñoz Hurtado, who was detained in May, and whose cadaver was found the following July. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Gilberto lbarra
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Used children to detonate mines, 1992: On February 12, 1992, Ibarra forced 3 peasant children to walk in front of his patrol to detonate mines and spring ambushes. Two were killed; one was seriously wounded. (U.S. Committee for Refugees Report: Feeding the Tiger: Colombia’s Internally Displaced People, 1993)

Name: Captain Cenén Dario Jiménez Leon
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1988: Strongly implicated in the assassination of union leader Manuel Gustavo Chacón Sarmiento, whose assassination in broad daylight incited five days of strikes and confrontations between the military and the citizens of Barranca. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN
COLOMBIA, INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, 1992; Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth)
Disappearance, 1988: Strongly implicated in the illegal detention, beating and disappearance of Héctor Suárez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Miller Tarcisio Koy Nuñez
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1986: Implicated in the assassination of Unión Patriotica member Pedro Net Jiménez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Fernando Landazabal
Dates/courses: 1950, Basic and Heavy Weapons
Info: Refusal to submit to civilian democratic authority, 1983: Landazabal was forced to retire as Colombia's defense minister in 1983, when he refused to honor a government mandated amnesty for certain guerrilla factions. (Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth)

Name: Paucelino Latorre Gamboa
Dates/courses: 1980, Commando Operations
Info: Commander of notorious Twentieth Brigade, 1998: Latorre was the commander of the 20th Brigade when it was implicated in the murders of three human rights workers in 1998. the Colombian government recently disbanded the 20th Brigade because of its involvement in grave human rights violations.

Name: First Lieutenant Carlos Alberto Lasprilia Ramírez
Dates/courses: 1984, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Disappearance, 1988: Implicated in the disappearance of Rene Herrero Ortega. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Jorge Alberto Lazaro Vergel
Dates/courses: 1981, Orient/Armas p' Cadetes C-3
Info: Puerto Patiño Massacre, 1995: Lazaro was arrested by the attorney general’s office in Barranquilla on charges that he had directed the massacre of 8 people in Puerto Patiño. A local police commander quoted Lazaro as saying, “no one[can] operate here without my order and I tell them yes or no, they are under my command and we’re not going to leave dead people around, we are going to grab people and disappear them because the dead make a lot of noise”. (HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH REPORT: COLOMBIA’S KILLER NETWORKS, 1996)
Links to Drug-Trafficking: Cited in a Colombian police report, which was published by Human Rights Watch in 1996, for involvement in the drug trade. (Frank Smyth, freelance journalist)

Name: First Lieutenant Samuel Lesmes Castro
Dates/courses: 1984, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Torture, murder, 1986: Participated in the torture of Yolanda Acevedo Carvajal, and aided in the cover-up of her assassination. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Harvey Bernardo Londono Muñoz
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Disappearance, murder, 1989: Implicated in the disappearance of Reinaldo Cuenca Wilson and Liliana Camacho Ipuz, whose bodies were blown up near a pipeline in order to seem like a guerrilla operation gone wrong. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Germán Arturo Lopera Restrepo
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Disappearance, 1982: Implicated in the disappearance of 13 people between 4 March and 11 September 1982. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Fernando López Cifuentes
Dates/courses: 1992, Combat Arms Officer Advance Course
Info: Torture, murder, 1987: Implicated in the brutal torture and murder of Cesar Aqite Ipia and Miguel Ipia Vargas. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Luis Fernando Madrid Baron
Dates/courses: 1978, Small Unit Tactics
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1987: Implicated in the activities of a paramilitary group which killed 149 people from 1987 to 1990. Cited as the intellectual author of many of the assassinations. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name:First Lieutant Cesar Maldonado
Dates/courses: 1987, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Forced civilian to guide, 1991: On patrol as part of Mobile Brigade 2, Maldonado and another lieutenant forced peasant Pedro Paternina Argumedo off of a public bus, made him put on an army uniform, and forced him to guide them for 8 days, without contact with his family. This is not an unusual tactic for Mobile Brigade personnel, who wear US camouflage uniforms, are responsible to no local authority, and wear no name tags. (Americas Watch Report: State of War: Political Violence and
Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: Major Carlos Enrique Martínez Orozco
Dates/courses: 1975, Guerrilla Warfare Operations
Info: Massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 18 miners in Antioquia, whose body parts washed in pieces down the river Nare. Martínez Orozco was subsequently promoted.
Paramilitary activity, 1990: Protected a chief paramilitarist responsible for high-profile assassinations; and in June 1992 was charged in a military court for his connection to paramilitaries. (Amnesty International Report: Colombia: Political Violence: Myth and Reality; TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name:GEN José Nelson Mejía Henao
Dates/courses: 1989, SOA "Hall of Fame"; 1961, Counter Resistance Course
Info: Use of U.S. counter-narcotics funds for counterinsurgency campaign: Former Chief of Staff, Colombian Army. Generals Nelson Mej?a Henao and Luis Eduardo Roca thanked the US Congress in 1991 for $40.3 million in anti-narcotics aid which was used (illegally) in counterinsurgency campaigns in northeastern Colombia, where narcotics are neither grown nor processed. (Ruth Conniff in The Progressive, May 1992)

Name: Captain Carlos Armando Mejía Lobo
Dates/courses: 1989, Psychological Operations Course; 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1984: Ordered the extrajudicial execution of communist Oscar William Calvo. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Carlos Vicente Meléndez Bohada
Dates/courses: 1978, Training Management Course
Info: Paramilitary activity (MAS), 1982: Implicated in paramilitary activities associated with the right-wing paramilitary death squad MAS. Assassinations, 1976-77: Implicated in the assassination of peasants Gilberto Vanegas and Alicidio Vanegas. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Luis Antonio Meneses Baez
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1981 -1991: Engaged in all manner of paramilitary activities -- including illegal detentions and extrajudicial executions - and described himself as a "coordinator" of armed forces and military intelligence. (AI:CPV, TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Pedro Nel Molano Vanegas
Dates/courses: 1962, Counterinsurgency Operations Course
Info: Torture, murder, 1978: Strongly implicated in the torture and murder of ELN member Jose Manuel Martinez Quiroz. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Tomas Monroy Roncancio
Dates/courses: 1981, Patrol Operations; 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Murder (6 counts, convicted), 1986: In June 1992, a military court convicted Monroy and 2 sergeants for detaining six workers ("suspected subversives"), forcing them into a cave, and slitting their throats. (Americas Watch Report: State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Mario Montoya Uribe
Dates/courses: 1993, SOA Guest Instructor; 1983, Tactical Officer, Cadet Arms
Info: Paramilitary activities (AAA), 1978-79: Implicated in paramilitary activities (specifically, bombings) of the paramilitary group known as "AAA." (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Carlos Alfonso Morales Del Rio
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1988: One of three Army officers believed to have run a death squad which operated in San Vicente de Chucuri and El Carmen (Santander). (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Juan Carlos Morales Lopez
Dates/courses: 1989, Cadet Orientation
Info: Paramilitary Activities: Was arrested in July 1998 after an investigation by the Colombian Attorney General concluded that Morales Lopez and other military officers collaborated with members of paramilitary groups who were captured in Acandi (Choco) in February of 1998. (El Colombiano, 7/24/98)

Name: Major Manuel Orlando Moreno Martínez
Dates/courses: 1975, Guerrilla Warfare Operations
Info: Murder of 3 woodcutters, 1988: Implicated in the murder of 3 woodcutters. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Rafael Neira
Dates/courses: 1980, Orientacion de Armas para Cadetes
Info: Cover-up, 1991: Neira claimed that Gildardo Antonio Gomez had escaped following his arrest by soldiers from the Nueva Granada Batallion, which was under Neira’s command. Gomez’ body was subsequently found with signs of severe torture. (OMCT News, 1991)

Name: Second Lieutenant German Dario Otalora Amaya
Dates/courses: 1988, Orientacion de Armas para Cadetes
Info: Massacre in El Sande: In 1990, troops under Otalora’s command entered the village of El Sande threatening them and accusing them of being guerrillas. Several people were killed, including the religious lay worker from Switzerland, Hildegard Maria Feldmann. Sande, firing indiscriminately at the inhabitants. They rounded up all of the villagers, (Aquellas muertes que hicieron resplandecer la vida, 1992)

Name: General Gustavo Pardo Ariza
Dates/courses: 1971, Irregular Warfare Operations
Info: Escape of Pablo Escobar, 1992: Pardo was one of three Army officers (two of them SOA graduates) forced into retirement upon the "escape" of Pablo Escobar from prison. Pardo was head of the Fourth Brigade in Medellin; soldiers under his command were supposed to be guarding the prison from which Escobar literally walked away. (Americas Watch Report: State of War Politcal Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: Jose Pereira
Dates/courses:1987, Curso de Orientaci?n de Armas para Cadetes C-3A
Info: Illegal arrest, 1991: Pereira was indicted for the illegal arrest of Gildardo Antonio Gomez and one of his employees. The two were taken to an abandoned house and questioned about their involvement with the guerrillas. The employee managed to escape, but Mr. Gomez’ body was later found with signs of torture. (Americas Watch Report: Political Murder and Reform in Colombia, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Edgar Gonzalo Peña
Dates/courses: 1982, Orient/Armas p' Cadetes C-3
Info: Illegal arrest and torture: A judge in Cucuta ordered Peña’s arrest for his participation in the 1988 capture of Benjamin Quintero Alvarez, Jorge Vivas B. y Luis H. Perez, who were later found tortured. (Autodefensas, paramilitares y narcotrafico en Colombia)

Name: General Rafael Peña Rios
Dates/courses: 1971, Special Maintenance Orientation Course; 1967, IW Operations
Info: Stated baldly in an interview with El Tiempo that the military should be a force of repression. He bemoaned the fact that the military no longer had complete control of Colombia, equated political opposition (such as the Unión Patriotica) with guerrilla warfare, and said that the way to end military abuse of authority was to give back to the military complete authority. (Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth)

Name: Major William Fernando Perez Laiseca
Dates/courses: 1977, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Torture, 1988: Participated in the detention and torture of 19 people in Pereira (Risaralda). (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Eduardo Alfonso Pico Hernandez
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Urabá Massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 20 banana workers. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Roberto Pizarro Martinez
Dates/courses: 1981, SOA Guest Instructor
Info: Murder, 1986: Implicated in the murder of Victor Manuel Aroca and the ensuing attempt at a cover-up. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Gustavo Adolfo Pizza Giviria
Dates/courses: 1982, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1987: Implicated in the assassination of Unión Patriotica presidential candidate Jaime Pardo Leal. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN
COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Luis Fernando Plata Aldana
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Llana Caliente massacre, 1988: Plata Aldana commanded one of the companies whose soldiers fired indiscriminately into a crowd of peasants detained during a march demanding schools and health clinics in the Santander department. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Eduardo Plata Quinoñes
Dates/courses: 1977, Command and General Staff College (Distinguished Graduate);1969, Maintenance Orientation
Info:Trujillo massacre, 1990: At the very least, Plata Quino?es is believed to have covered for officers involved in the gruesome campaign of killing and dismemberment in and around Trujillo in the spring of 1990. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Norberto Plata Sanchez
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Torture, murder, 1980: Participated in the torture of four M-19 members, one of whom died. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Jose Bertoli Porras Amaya
Dates/courses: 1981, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Torture, 1990: Participated in the torture of 42 people over 7 days, most of whom were members of labor unions or human rights groups. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Jose Oswaldo Prada Escobar
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Disappearance, paramilitary activity, 1988-89: Implicated in paramilitary activities including disappearance, assassination, and the massacre of a judicial commission investigating military/paramilitary cooperation. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Orlando Hernando Pulido Rojas
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Branch Orientation

Info: Torture, murder, 1988: Implicated in the torture of Filemón Cala Reyes in September 1988, and in his murder on 14 March 1989. Paramilitary activity, 1987: Participated in a paramilitary death squad responsible for the assassination of 149 peasants between June 1987 and April 1990. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Marco Aurelio Quintero Torres
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info:Torture, 1988: Tortured Jorge Ivan Pulgarin Arcila during 9 days in March 1988. Later that year, Quintero Torres participated in the torture of 19 people, one of whom sustained permanent damage in both arms. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Nestor Ramírez Mejía
Dates/courses: 1985, Command and General Staff College (Distinguished graduate)
Info: Beating of journalist, 1996: In 1996, journalist Richard Velez was attempting to film a confrontation where army troops under Ramirez’ command fired on a group of demonstrating peasants. When the soldiers saw Velez filming, they began to kick and beat him, demanding that he
give up the tape. He managed to hand the tape to another journalist who was able to smuggle it out, but Velez himself was severely wounded, his liver perforated and testicles destroyed. This incident occurred after Velez had publicly challenged Ramirez Mejia at a press conference, providing video evidence that contradicted Ramirez’ account of an armed confrontation. Velez was later granted political asylum in the United States. (Colombia Update, Fall/Winter 1998) Failure to comply with judicial order, 1996: A judge sentenced Ramirez Mejia to 30 days in prison and a fine for failure to comply with an order to remove barricades constructed by the army at a bridge to block protesting peasants. (Colombia Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 2) Assassination, 1986: Implicated in the revenge-killing of Gustavo Alfonso Macias. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Sargent William Ramirez
Dates/courses: 1986, Orientación de Armas para Cadetes C-3A3
Info: Murder: Ramirez is charged with the aggravated murder of grassroots leader Antonio Palacios Urrea as well as six other people. (Americas Watch Report: Political Murder and Reform in Colombia, 1992)

Name: Captain Carlos Hugo Ramírez Zuluaga
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1981 -82: Colombian attorney general named Ramírez Zuluaga as one of several Army officers who were part of the military/paramilitary death squad MAS (Muerte a Secustradores, or "Death to Kidnappers"). (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major Luis Fernando Ricardo Perdomo
Dates/courses: 1987, Psychological Operations Course
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1981-82: Colombian attorney general named Ricardo Perdomo as one of several Army officers who were part of the military/paramilitary death squad MAS. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name:General Luis Eduardo Roca Malchel
Dates/courses:1991, SOA “Hall of Fame”
Info: Misuse of counter-narcotics funds. In 1991, this former Army chief of staff, with cohort José Nelson Mejía Henao (above), thanked Congress for $40.3 million in anti-narcotics aid, which they said would be used (illegally) in counterinsurgency campaigns in northeastern Colombia, where narcotics are neither grown nor processed. (Ruth Connill, The Progressive, May 1992) Torture, 1988: Covered for those who tortured 19 people over 3 weeks in June 1988, one of whom sustained permanent damage to both arms. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)


Name: General Luis Alberto Rodríguez
Dates/courses: 1978, Command and General Staff College; 1970, "O-7"
Info:Former head, joint chiefs of staff, dismissed along with 5 other top military officers: Rodr?guez was dismissed on November 22, 1994 by President Ernesto Samper. Samper overhauled the military leadership in the hopes of decreasing corruption and drug trafficking among the armed forces, and improving the human rights record of the military. (Reuters, November 22, 1994)

Name: General Francisco Augusto Rodríguez Arango
Dates/courses:1969, Maintenance Orientation Course
Info: Murder, 1986: Covered for those responsible for the revenge-killing of communist Gustavo Alfonso Macias. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Luis Alvaro Rodríguez Fontecha
Dates/courses: 1975, Guerrilla Warfare Operations
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1981-82: Named by the Colombian attorney general in 1983 as a member of the military/paramilitary death squad MAS. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN) COLOMBIA, 1992

Name: Captain Mario Raul Rodríguez Reynoso
Dates/courses: 1978, Small Unit Tactics
Info: Murder, 1989: Implicated in the disappearance of Amparo Tordecilla. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Raul Rojas Cubillos
Dates/courses: 1971, Special Maintenance Orientation
Info: Urabá massacre, 1988: Implicated in the early morning massacre of 20 banana workers. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992) Segovia massacre, 1988: Implicated in the early evening massacre of 43 people, including several children, in a central park in the town of Segovia. Several children were among the dead. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Luis Fernando Rojas Espinoza
Dates/courses: 1984, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Segovia massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre at Segovia. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant José Hugo Rojas Guzmán
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1989: Led a military/paramilitary death squad in
Magdalena Medio. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Second Lieutenant Alejandro Rojas Pinilla
Dates/courses: 1985, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Disappearance, 1987: Implicated in the abduction and disappearance of Ramón Salvador Angarita Solano from his home in the Santander department. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant William Fernando Rubio Moreno
Dates/courses: 1986, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Murder, 1988: Implicated in the murder of three woodcutters in Magdalena Medio. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Jaime Ruiz Barrera
Dates/courses: 1970, Military Intelligence Officer Course
Info: Assassination of Colombian attorney general, 1988: Implicated in the assassination of Colombian attorney general Carlos Mauro Hoyos. Torture, murder, 1979: Ordered the assassination of Claudio Medina Caycedo and the disposal of his corpse. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Francisco E. Ruiz Florian
Dates/courses: 1976, Tactical Officer, Small Unit Infantry
Info: Assassination, 1986: Obstructed investigations into the revenge-killing of communist Gustavo Alfonso Macias. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA,
1992)

Name: Captain Marco Antonio Salazar Duque
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Paramilitary (MAS) activity: Investigations by the attorney general and others indicated that Salazar Duque participated in the military/paramilitary death squad MAS, and was personally responsible for the assassination of at least one individual. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Juan Carlos Salazar Salazar
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Illegal detention, torture, 1988: Participated in the detention and torture of 19 individuals, one of whom sustained permanent damage to both arms. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Juan Salcedo Lora
Dates/courses: 1979, SOA Guest Instructor; 1971, Special Maintenance Orientation
Info: Illegal detention, 1988: Ordered the illegal and clandestine detention of Manuel Reyes Cárdenas. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Rafael Samudio Molina
Dates/courses: 1988, SOA "Hall of Fame"; 1970, SOA Guest Instructor
Info: Massacre at the Palace of Justice, November 7, 1985: Oversaw the Army massacre at the Palace of Justice following an attempt by the M-19 to take it over. The Army under his command set the building ablaze, resulting in the needless and horrifying deaths of many of the hostages. Other hostages were killed in Army crossfire, or, as some suspect, direct assassination. Even the hostages who lived through the horrifying ordeal were not safe; some were killed before exiting the palace and others were arrested and disappeared immediately upon leaving the building. Taped conversations between Samudio Molina and his commanders in the building establish that at no time did Samudio Molina act as an agent of the civilian government, but rather used the situation to prove the brutality of the Colombian military and to eliminate individuals, including Supreme Court justices, who were not staunch enough allies of the Colombian Army. (POJ) Samudio Molina has also been implicated in paramilitary activities since 1978. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Humberto Sanchez Rey
Dates/courses: 1990, Advanced Combat Officer Course; 1982, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Assassination of Unión Patriotica presidential candidate, 1987: Implicated in the drug-financed assassination of Jaime Pardo Leal, Unión Patriotica presidential candidate. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Manuel Sanmiguel Buenaventura
Dates/courses: 1962, Counterinsurgency Operations
Info: Urabá massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of twenty banana workers. Torture, 1979: Participated in the torture of Olga L?pez and Augusto Lara Sánchez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Carlos Eduardo Santacruz Estrada
Dates/courses: 1983, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Segovia massacre, 1988: Implicated in the early evening massacre of 43 unarmed people, including children, in a Segovia park. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Ramón de Jesús Santander Fuentes
Dates/courses: 1986, Command and General Staff College (Distinguished graduate)
Info: Massacre, 1989: Implicated in the military/paramilitary massacre of a judicial commission investigating military/paramilitary cooperation. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Major José Ismael Sierra Sierra
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Disappearance, 1982: Covered for those who disappeared Gustavo Albeiro Muñoz Hurtado. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992

Name: Major Jairo Solano
Dates/courses: 1976, Tacticas de Infanteria de Unidades Pequeñas
Info: Ordered killing, 1992: He ordered the death of Dr. Adalbulo in 1992. (Colombia’s Killer Networks)

Name: Major Carlos Arturo Suarez Bustamante
Dates/courses: 1981, Tactical Officer, Cadet Arms Orientation
Info: Assassination, 1986: Commanded the company that conducted the revenge-killing of Gustavo Alfonso Macias Borja. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Celso Suarez Martínez
Dates/courses: 1975, Special Maintenance Administration
Info: Massacre at the Palace of Justice, 1985: Implicated in the disappearance of hostages who survived the Army's brutal handling of the M-19 takeover of the Palace of Justice in Bogotá.(TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: MAJ Luis Alberto Tobo Peña
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info:Torture, assassination, 1984: Implicated in the torture and murder of communist Luis Fernando Lalinde. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Hugo Arturo Tovar Sanchez
Dates/courses: 1967, Tactical Officer, Cadet Orientation Course
Info: Clandestine detention, 1989: Ordered the illegal clandestine detentionof Argiro Alonso Avendano Palacio and Maricela Cuello Villamil.(TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Orlando Elain Tovar Trujillo
Dates/courses: 1979, SOA Guest Instructor; 1967, Cadet Orientation Course
Info: Torture, 1988: Implicated in the military operation in which 19 individuals were arrested and subsequently tortured. One victim sustained permanent damage to both arms. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Victor Manuel Trujillo Hoyos
Dates/courses: 1983-84, Guest Instructor
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity (MAS), 1981-82: Protected and aided the military/paramilitary death squad MAS while assigned to the Fifth Brigade. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: First Lieutenant Orlando Ulloa Gaitán
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Assassination, 1987: Implicated in the drug-financed assassination of Unión Patriotica presidential candidate Jaime Pardo Leal. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Luis Bernardo Urbina Sanchez
Dates/courses: 1985, Command and General Staff College
Info: Paramilitary death squad activity, 1988-89: Fellow SOA graduate Meneses Baez confessed to Urbina Sanchez' involvement in paramilitary death squads, which he referred to as "self-defense' groups. Disappearance, assassination, 1989: Implicated in the assassination of Amparo Tordecilla.
Assassination, 1987: Implicated in the assassination of Unión Patriotica member Alvaro Garcás Parra.
Disappearance, torture, assassination, 1987: Ordered the detention, torture and assassination of Mario Alexender Granados Plazas.
Disappearance, 1986: Intellectual author of the detention/disappearance of William Camacho Barajas and Orlando García González.
Torture, disappearance, 1977: Implicated in the torture of Omaira Montoya Henao and Mauricio Trujillo, and the subsequent disappearance of Omaira Montoya. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Jairo John Uribe Cárdenas
Dates/courses: 1980 Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Paramilitary activity, 1986: Implicated in paramilitary activities, including assassinations and disappearances, in Llanos Orientales. Ramírez massacre, 1986: Implicated in the murder of 2 members of the Ramírez family, and the torture and murder of 4 others. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Alirio Antonio Urue?a Jaramillo
Dates/courses: 1976, Small Unit Infantry Tactics
Info: Trujillo chain saw massacres, 1988-1991: From 1988 - 1991, at least 107 citizens of the village of Trujillo were tortured and murdered. An eye-witness said Major Alirio Antonio Urue?a tortured prisoners (including elderly women) with water hoses, stuffed them into coffee sacks, and chopped them to pieces with a chain saw. The eye-witness was soon disappeared; Major Urue?a was promoted to Colonel. After intense international outcry, Urue?a was dismissed from the Army in February 1995. (Associated Press, 2/7/95; TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Juan José Alfonso Vacca Parilia
Dates/courses: 1980, Guest Instructor
Info: Urabá massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre of 20 banana workers on the morning of March 4, 1988. Disappearance, 1988: Implicated in the disappearance of Manuel Reyes Cárdenas.
Assassination, 1987: Implicated in the assassination of Alvaro Garcás Parra, mayor of Sabana de Torres, Paramilitary activity (MAC), 1985: Created a military/paramilitary death squad known as "Muerte a Comunistas" (Death to Communists) Torture, 1979: During his tenure there, the Escuela de Caballeria was a torture center. Olga L?pez Jaramillo was tortured there. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Captain Cesar Augusto Valencia Moreno
Dates/courses: 1980, Orientacion para Ramas de Cadete
Info: Linked to death of Sergio Restrepo Jaramillo: Cpt. Valencia repeatedly pressured Jesuit Sergio Restrepo to change a mural painted on a church wall that depicted soldiers torturing a priest. Restrepo refused to do so, and was murdered a short time later by paid assassins who carried Army Intelligence cards. Eye witnesses state that shortly before the shots were fired, Valencia became nervous and went out onto the balcony as though expecting something to happen. When he heard the shots, he was visibly relieved and came back inside. (Aquellas muertes que hicieron resplandecer la vida, 1992)

Name: Captain Hugo Alberto Valencia Vivas
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course
Info: Segovia massacre, 1988: Implicated in the massacre at Segovia in which 43 people died, including several children. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Colonel Bayardo Vasquez Valdes
Dates/courses: 1977, Automotive Maintenance Officer
Info: Disappearance, 1989: Implicated in the disappearance of Sandra Vélez Vélez. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Lieutenant Alfonso Vega Garzon
Dates/courses: 1985, Orientacion de Armas de Combate
Info: Massacre, 1993: Implicated in the massacre of 13 people. (Colombia’s Killer Networks)

Name: Captain Freddy José Velandia Bottia
Dates/courses: 1980, Cadet Arms Orientation Course

Info: Torture, 1989: Commanded the patrol that detained and tortured a union leader and 2 banana workers over several days in March 1989. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: Colonel Carlos Velasquez
Dates/courses: 1976, Tacticas de Infanteria de Unidades Pequeñas
Info: Coup Plot, 1995: As commander of the 17th Brigade, Velasquez planned to seize Colombian President Samper during a visit to an army base in the northwest banana-growing region of Uraba and send him into exile in Panama. The attempt was called off after a general, on of Velasquez’s
superiors, arrived unexpectedly at the base. Interior Minister Alfonso Lopez immediately announced an investigation and said that Velasquez would be punished. Prior to serving as a commander of the 17th Brigade, Velasquez headed an anti-drug unit that lead the search for the kingpins of the Cali cartel, but he was transferred after the leak of a video showing him in a motel room with a known female member of the cartel. (Reuters)

Name: General Jesús Maria Vergara Aragon
Dates/courses: 1971, Special Maintenance Orientation Course
Info: Fusagasugá massacre, 1991: Failed to investigate the massacre for days after it happened, insisting publicly that guerrillas were responsible for killing a peasant family and two other men. (Americas Watch Report: State of War Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, 1993)

Name: General Nacim Yanine Díaz
Dates/courses: 1971, "O-7
Info: Disappearance, 1982: Implicated in the disappearance of 13 people between March and September of 1982. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)

Name: General Hernando Camilo Zuniga Chaparro
Dates/courses: 1978, Command and General Staff College;1968, Military Intelligence Officer Course
Info: Torture, 1988: Commanded the unit responsible for the torture of 19 people in June 1988, one of whom sustained permanent damage to both arms.
Clandestine detention, 1988: Ordered the clandestine detention of José Manuel Reyes Cárdenas.
Disappearance, 1985: Implicated in the disappearance of guerrillas and hostages following the M-19's doomed attempt to takeover the Palace of Justice.
Torture, disappearance, 1977: Ordered the detention and torture of Omaira Montoya Henao and Mauricio Trujillo. Omaira Montoya Henao was never seen again. (TERRORISMO DE ESTADO EN COLOMBIA, 1992)



 

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